Cell - The smallest unit of life

Cells are the smallest living structures that make up a living organism, plant or animal. Cellular functions include processes that are very important for life, such as protein and lipid synthesis, cell division, cellular respiration, metabolism, and the body’s defense against infections and injuries.

A cell can be “divided” into three structural regions: the cell membrane, the cytoplasm, and the nucleus. The membrane is the external surface of the cell. It consists mainly of proteins (about 60 percent of its structure) surrounded by a double layer of phospholipids (about 40 percent).Cytoplasm refers to the substance which is located between the plasma membrane and the nucleus. It consists of a semifluid liquid that is called cytosol. The organelles and cytoskeleton give the cell its basic shape. Finally, the nucleus in the center of the cell plays a very important role as it stores the genetic material in the form of chromosomes and it is the place where important functions such as DNA replication also take place.


Role of cells in human health

Every human body is made up of more than cells.

Cellular functions are essential for human growth and health at all ages. Scientists claim that all human diseases can eventually be detected in the failure of some cellular mechanism and cellular dysfunction.

Some examples of diseases resulting from the dysfunction of specific cell structures are cancer, miscarriages (loss of pregnancy), epilepsy, mental retardation, polycystic kidney disease, brain and muscle disorders, loss of hearing, and Chronic Autoimmune and Metabolic diseases.

To treat disease we must first understand its cause. In order to understand the cause of a disease, we have to understand the changes that occur at a cellular level.


Why is cellular biology so important?

By mapping the human genome, we have greatly enhanced our ability to detect the molecular aberrations that are responsible for even genetically complex diseases. The study of the cellular basis of human diseases has already produced some fundamental knowledge of cellular biological principles.

By understanding how cells and genes function in healthy and diseased individuals, scientists working in the field of medical science create appropriate mechanisms to repair chronic diseases so that they can be properly treated.


Cellular health and longevity

Health is largely determined by the very building blocks of the body, the cells. Good cell health means that all the important molecules that make up the cell are present, and that the cell’s organelles function properly.

Aging causes a deterioration of cellular health. In fact, aging is not just a process. It is more like a series of different changes that are happening at the same time. A 2013 review published in Cell journal identified nine different features of aging, such as “mitochondrial dysfunction” – which is caused when the cellular metabolic motor stops functioning properly – and “cellular aging” – when cells stop dividing as part of the biological process.


What can we do?

Cellular deficiencies can be identified through innovative diagnostic tests. These tests can also identify the specific molecular pathways and mechanisms that are altered and need to be restored. By administering the appropriate micronutrients , the human cells can initiate those homeostatic mechanisms that will enable the restoration of cellular integrity.

it comes without saying that, every person has different needs and only through a personalized approach, will the cellular restoration be successful.


Dr. Nikoleta Koini, M.D.

Doctor of Functional, Preventive, Anti-ageing and Restorative Medicine.
Diplomate and Board Certified in Anti-aging, Preventive, Functional and Regenerative Medicine from A4M (American Academy in Antiaging Medicine).



  1. “Integration of Cell Cycle Signals.” Science 304 (April 9, 2004): 175.
  2. Lamb, Neil E., Kai Yu, John Shaffer, et al. “Association between Maternal Age and Meiotic Recombination for Trisomy 21.” American Journal of Human Genetics 76 (January 2005): 91-100.
  3. Lucentini, Jack. “Stem Cell Sculpting: Study Notes the Power of Shape on Cell Differentiation.” The Scientist 18 (August 30, 2004): 22.
  4. Ponti, A., M. Machacek, S. L. Gupton, et al. “Two Distinct Actin Networks Drive the Protrusion of Migrating Cells.” Science 305 (September 17, 2004): 1782-1777.
  5. “The ‘Upstairs/Downstairs’ Mystery of Cell Suicide Is Burdened by Too Much Evidence.” PR Newswire, 6 October 2005.
  6. Winchester, Bryan. “Lysosomes: The Cell’s Recycling Centres.” Biological Sciences Review 17 (November 2004): 21-24.
  7. Harvard School of Public Health. “Inner Structure of Cells Behaves Much as Molten Glass.” Press release, 20 June 2005.
  8. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). A Science Primer: What Is a Cell? Bethesda, MD: NCBI, 2005. 〈http://www.ncbi.nih.gov/About/primer/genetics_cell.html

Also Read:

Schedule an Online Medical Consultation

1. Create your Personal Profile
2. Fill your Medical History Online
3. Schedule an Appointment

Latest News